Militarization of Space (Global Issues (Facts on File))
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The second section draws together significant U. The third section gathers useful research tools—such as brief biographies of key international players, facts and figures, an annotated bibliography, and a list of relevant international organizations and agencies. This is an important first-stop resource for high school and college students, school and public libraries, and general readers interested in timely, hot-button issues.
Highly Recommended. Visit Seller's Storefront. List this Seller's Books. Payment Methods accepted by seller. AbeBooks Bookseller Since: August 3, Home Robertson, Ann E. Stock Image. Published by Facts on File, Used Condition: Good. In simple terms, the Cold War could be viewed as an expression of the ideological struggle between communism and capitalism. SAC employed intercontinental strategic bombers, as well as medium-bombers based close to Soviet airspace in western Europe and in Turkey that were capable of delivering nuclear payloads.
For its part, the Soviet Union harbored fears of invasion.
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Having suffered at least 27 million casualties during World War II after being invaded by Nazi Germany in ,  the Soviet Union was wary of its former ally, the United States, which until late was the sole possessor of atomic weapons. The United States had used these weapons operationally during World War II, and it could use them again against the Soviet Union, laying waste to its cities and military centers. In , Korolev was given the go-ahead to develop the R-7 Semyorka rocket, which represented a major advance from the German design. Although some of its components notably boosters still resembled the German G-4, the new rocket incorporated staged design, a completely new control system, and a new fuel.
It was successfully tested on August 21, , and became the world's first fully operational ICBM the following month. The United States had multiple rocket programs divided among the different branches of the American armed services, which meant that each force developed its own ICBM program.
With the Cold War as an engine for change in the ideological competition between the United States and the Soviet Union, a coherent space policy began to take shape in the United States during the late s. In , with both the United States and the Soviet Union building ballistic missiles that could be utilized to launch objects into space, the stage was set for nationalistic competition.
Hagerty , President Dwight D. Eisenhower 's press secretary, announced that the United States intended to launch "small Earth circling satellites" between July 1, , and December 31, , as part of the US contribution to the International Geophysical Year IGY. Sedov spoke to international reporters at the Soviet embassy and announced his country's intention to launch a satellite as well, in the "near future". Therefore, he selected the untried Naval Research Laboratory 's Vanguard rocket , which was a research-only booster.
Korolev received word about von Braun's Jupiter-C test and, mistakenly thinking it was a satellite mission that failed, expedited plans to get his own satellite in orbit. Since the R-7 was substantially more powerful than any of the US boosters, he made sure to take full advantage of this capability by designing Object D as his primary satellite. Korolev was buoyed by the first successful launches of the R-7 rocket in August and September, which paved the way for the launch of Sputnik.
But the celebrations were muted at the launch control center until the down-range far east tracking station at Kamchatka received the first distinctive beep The Soviet success raised a great deal of concern in the United States. For example, economist Bernard Baruch wrote in an open letter titled "The Lessons of Defeat" to the New York Herald Tribune : "While we devote our industrial and technological power to producing new model automobiles and more gadgets, the Soviet Union is conquering space.
It is Russia, not the United States, who has had the imagination to hitch its wagon to the stars and the skill to reach for the moon and all but grasp it. America is worried. It should be. Eisenhower ordered project Vanguard to move up its timetable and launch its satellite much sooner than originally planned. The satellite appeared in newspapers under the names Flopnik, Stayputnik, Kaputnik,  and Dudnik. In Britain, the US's Western Cold War ally, the reaction was mixed: some celebrated the fact that the Soviets had reached space first, while others feared the destructive potential that military uses of spacecraft might bring.
On January 31, , nearly four months after the launch of Sputnik 1 , von Braun and the United States successfully launched its first satellite on a four-stage Juno I rocket derived from the US Army's Redstone missile, at Cape Canaveral. James Van Allen , a space scientist at the University of Iowa , had theorized. The satellite measured three phenomena: cosmic ray and radiation levels, the temperature in the spacecraft, and the frequency of collisions with micrometeorites. The satellite had no memory for data storage, therefore it had to transmit continuously.
On April 2, , President Eisenhower reacted to the Soviet space lead in launching the first satellite by recommending to the US Congress that a civilian agency be established to direct nonmilitary space activities.
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Johnson , responded by passing the National Aeronautics and Space Act , which Eisenhower signed into law on July 29, It also created a Civilian-Military Liaison Committee, chaired by the President, responsible for coordinating the nation's civilian and military space programs. Marshall Space Flight Center , with von Braun as its first director.
Development of the Saturn rocket family , which when mature gave the US parity with the Soviets in terms of lifting capability, was thus transferred to NASA. Three secret attempts to launch Luna E-1 -class impactor probes failed. The fourth attempt, Luna 1 , launched successfully on January 2, , but missed the Moon. The fifth attempt on June 18 also failed at launch.
The By , some American observers had predicted that the Soviet Union would be the first to get a human into space because of the time needed to prepare for Mercury's first launch. Although he had the ability to take control of his capsule in an emergency by opening an envelope he had in the cabin that contained a code that could be typed into the computer, it was flown in an automatic mode as a precaution; medical science at that time did not know what would happen to a human in the weightlessness of space.
For this reason, the Soviet Union omitted from their FAI submission the fact that Gagarin did not land with his capsule. When the FAI filing for Gherman Titov 's second Vostok flight in August disclosed the ejection landing technique, the FAI committee decided to investigate, and concluded that the technological accomplishment of human spaceflight lay in the safe launch, orbiting, and return, rather than the manner of landing, and revised their rules, keeping Gagarin's and Titov's records intact.
Gagarin became a national hero of the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc, and a worldwide celebrity. The radio communication between the launch control room and Gagarin included the following dialogue at the moment of rocket launch:. Korolev: "Preliminary stage We wish you a good flight. Everything is all right. Gagarin's informal poyekhali! This program studied several different types of one-man space vehicles, settling on a ballistic re-entry capsule launched on a derivative Atlas missile , and selecting a group of nine candidate pilots.
NASA selected a new group of astronaut from the Greek for "star sailor" candidates from Navy , Air Force and Marine test pilots, and narrowed this down to a group of seven for the program. Capsule design and astronaut training began immediately, working toward preliminary suborbital flights on the Redstone missile , followed by orbital flights on the Atlas. Each flight series would first start uncrewed, then carry a non-human primate, then finally humans. On May 5, , Alan Shepard became the first American in space, launching in a ballistic trajectory on Mercury-Redstone 3 , in a spacecraft he named Freedom 7.
Now it is time to take longer strides—time for a great new American enterprise—time for this nation to take a clearly leading role in space achievement, which in many ways may hold the key to our future on Earth. Recognizing the head start obtained by the Soviets with their large rocket engines, which gives them many months of lead-time, and recognizing the likelihood that they will exploit this lead for some time to come in still more impressive successes, we nevertheless are required to make new efforts on our own.
John F. Kennedy 's support for America's crewed space program was lukewarm. Jerome Wiesner of MIT, who served as a science advisor to presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy, and himself an opponent of crewed space exploration, remarked, "If Kennedy could have opted out of a big space program without hurting the country in his judgment, he would have.
Webb submitted a budget request to fund a Moon landing before , Kennedy rejected it because it was simply too expensive. Gagarin's flight changed this; now Kennedy sensed the humiliation and fear on the part of the American public over the Soviet lead. Additionally, the Bay of Pigs invasion , planned before his term began but executed during it, was an embarrassment to his administration due to the colossal failure of the US forces.
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Johnson , asking him to look into the state of America's space program, and into programs that could offer NASA the opportunity to catch up. Johnson, in turn, consulted with von Braun, who answered Kennedy's questions based on his estimates of US and Soviet rocket lifting capability. Kennedy ultimately decided to pursue what became the Apollo program , and on May 25 took the opportunity to ask for Congressional support in a Cold War speech titled "Special Message on Urgent National Needs". Johnson Space Center facility. As later disclosed, the Soviet Union secretly pursued a crewed lunar program until Almost a year after the Soviet Union put a human into orbit, astronaut John Glenn became the first American to orbit the Earth, on February 20, The United States launched three more Mercury flights after Glenn's: Aurora 7 on May 24, duplicated Glenn's three orbits, Sigma 7 on October 3, six orbits, and Faith 7 on May 15, 22 orbits NASA at first intended to launch one more mission, extending the spacecraft's endurance to three days, but since this would not beat the Soviet record, it was decided instead to concentrate on developing Project Gemini.
Gherman Titov became the first Soviet cosmonaut to exercise manual control of his Vostok 2 craft on August 6, Though the two craft's orbits were as nearly identical as possible given the accuracy of the launch rocket's guidance system, slight variations still existed which drew the two craft at first as close to each other as 6. There were no maneuvering rockets on the Vostok to permit space rendezvous , required to keep two spacecraft a controlled distance apart. This time they launched the first woman also the first civilian , Valentina Tereshkova , into space on Vostok 6.
The Soviets kept the details and true appearance of the Vostok capsule secret until the April Moscow Economic Exhibition, where it was first displayed without its aerodynamic nose cone concealing the spherical capsule. The "Vostok spaceship" had been first displayed at the July Tushino air show , mounted on its launch vehicle's third stage, with the nose cone in place.
A tail section with eight fins was also added, in an apparent attempt to confuse western observers. This spurious tail section also appeared on official commemorative stamps and a documentary.
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Kennedy thus changed his mind regarding the desirability of the space race, preferring instead to ease tensions with the Soviet Union by cooperating on projects such as a joint lunar landing. During the next few weeks he reportedly concluded that both nations might realize cost benefits and technological gains from a joint venture, and decided to accept Kennedy's offer based on a measure of rapport during their years as leaders of the world's two superpowers, but changed his mind and dropped the idea since he did not have the same trust for Kennedy's successor, Lyndon Johnson.
As President, Johnson steadfastly pursued the Gemini and Apollo programs, promoting them as Kennedy's legacy to the American public. One week after Kennedy's death, he issued an executive order renaming the Cape Canaveral and Apollo launch facilities after Kennedy. Focused by the commitment to a Moon landing, in January the US announced Project Gemini , a two-person spacecraft that would support the later three-person Apollo by developing the key spaceflight technologies of space rendezvous and docking of two craft, flight durations of sufficient length to simulate going to the Moon and back, and extra-vehicular activity to accomplish useful work outside the spacecraft.
Meanwhile, Korolev had planned further, long-term missions for the Vostok spacecraft, and had four Vostoks in various stages of fabrication in late at his OKB-1 facilities. These plans included major advancements in spacecraft capabilities, including a two-person spacecraft, the ability to change orbits, the capacity to perform an extravehicular activity EVA , and the goal of docking with another spacecraft.
The greater advances of the Soviet space program at the time allowed their space program to achieve other significant firsts, including the first EVA "spacewalk". Gemini took a year longer than planned to accomplish its first flight, allowing the Soviets to achieve another first, launching the first spacecraft with a three-cosmonaut crew, Voskhod 1 , on October 12, Flying without spacesuits exposed the cosmonauts to significant risk in the event of potentially fatal cabin depressurization.
By October 16, , Leonid Brezhnev and a small cadre of high-ranking Communist Party officials deposed Khrushchev as Soviet government leader a day after Voskhod 1 landed, in what was called the "Wednesday conspiracy". According to historian Asif Siddiqi, Korolev's accomplishments marked "the absolute zenith of the Soviet space program, one never, ever attained since. Though delayed a year to reach its first flight, Gemini was able to take advantage of the USSR's two-year hiatus after Voskhod, which enabled the US to catch up and surpass the previous Soviet lead in piloted spaceflight.
Gemini achieved several significant firsts during the course of ten piloted missions: [ citation needed ]. Most of the novice pilots on the early missions would command the later missions. In this way, Project Gemini built up spaceflight experience for the pool of astronauts for the Apollo lunar missions.
Korolev's design bureau produced two prospectuses for circumlunar spaceflight March and May , the main spacecraft for which were early versions of his Soyuz design. Soviet Communist Party Central Committee Command officially established two secret, competing crewed programs for circumlunar flights and lunar landings, on August 3, The circumlunar flights were planned to occur in , and the landings to start in The Zond sacrificed habitable cabin volume for equipment, by omitting the Soyuz orbital module.
Chelomey gained favor with Khrushchev by employing members of his family. A separate lunar lander " Lunniy Korabl ", LK , would carry a single cosmonaut to the lunar surface.